This is because police brutality often stems from the same theoretical processes that lead to verbal chastising and psychological abuse during police interrogations (e.g., Carter 1985) – both of which are abusive but not physical. An Empirical Analysis of Racial Di↵erences in Police Use of Force⇤ Roland G. Fryer, Jr.† July 2017 Abstract This paper explores racial di↵erences in police use of force. Violent incidents in Los Angeles (1965 and 1992), Detroit (1967), Chicago (1968), Liberty City-Miami (1980), Cincinnati (2001) – even Tulsa in 1921 – were not so much riots as they were urban rebellions. ... police brutality is defined as the use of excessive and/ or unnecessary force by police when dealing with civilians. Despite this landmark decision that made the “defense of life” standard the law of the land, the Court in Garner failed to outline circumstances under which deadly force was permissible. Templates, such as Muir’s (1977) extortionate transaction model, Van Maanen’s (1978) “asshole” perspective, Herbert’s (1997) identification of workgroup “normative orders,” and Skolnick and Fyfe’s (1993) elaboration of the “siege” mentality, show that police brutality may be influenced at every level of a police officer’s contextual occupational life. Once they complete their field training programs, police officers may continue to practice good policing and the protection of life in both patrol and specialized settings. Thus, integrating the Section 1983 statute with Supreme Court decisions results in plaintiffs gaining ready access to Federal court for the purposes of attempting to hold police officers and the agencies/governments that employed them accountable for brutality, though trial courts must adhere to Graham’s “objective reasonableness” requirement of evaluating the use of force from the standpoint of a reasonable officer at the scene. In his classic lecture, “Politics as a Vocation,” Max Weber (see: Weber et al. Police throughout the United States use firearms, beat detainees, use methods that make them choking, and use unreasonably brutal measures of physical pressure without sufficient justification. In the United States, however, police agencies are not required to report use of force – let alone excessive force – incidents to any centralized authority, leading researchers and policy-makers to make guesses about the frequency and severity of police brutality. The officers were probably justified in the use of their batons while the suspect was fighting them, but what about the subsequent kicks and blows once the suspect was handcuffed and effectively restrained? Essays.io ️ Los Angeles Police Department, Research Paper Example from students accepted to Harvard, Stanford, and other elite schools Wadsworth, Belmont, Walker S, Katz C (2010) Police in America: an Introduction. As cited by Klockars (1985), we maintain a collective police force because of what Egon Bittner wrote in 1970: “something-ought-not-to-be-happening-aboutwhich-something-ought-to-be-done.. The clinical data demonstrated that TASER devices could cause ventricular fibrillation in people, but the chances are low. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37(4), 334-340. The authors of the next study discussed the problem of cardiac arrest caused by the use of TASER devices. The research designed I would perform for this study would be the evaluative survey research method, in the sense that seeks to determine what is the proper meaning of use of force. Jauchem, J. R. (2015). Retrieved 2 Nov 2012. A. Perhaps this is why excessive force, or brutality, often seems to occur unchecked in communities that are unable to advocate for themselves, making it difficult to hold police officers accountable for the use of unauthorized violence. For example, officers regarded as professionals – and who usually conducted themselves appropriately during most police-citizen encounters – sometimes became enforcers during certain incidents. Why? In: Manning PK, Van Maanen J (eds) Policing: a view from the street. This issue is important for municipal authorities, as some members of the public, particularly those residing in communities characterized by racial segregation and/or systemic economic resource deprivation, may perceive inequities in the distribution of police resources in violation of procedural justice expectations (Jacob 1971). On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. Also, the article revealed some statistics regarding the use of TASER devices. !” That is, although it is possible to mobilize the government without using the police, it is often not feasible to do so. The main goal of this paper is to research the issue of the police use of force involving mentally ill people. Perhaps the most interesting and important element of Muir’s (1977) typology was the recognition that officers might slide between one personality type and another based on cues in the social environment. The effectiveness of some methods is compromised by the severe health damage that they might cause. Also, they increase chances of cardiac arrest and excited delirium syndrome. Since William Westley (1970) published his classic ethnography of police in Indiana (which was actually published 20 years after his dissertation work that produced the findings) in which he described for the first time the importance officers and police organizations placed on making felony arrests, several researchers have replicated Westley’s methodology in an effort to highlight several aspects of the police occupation that previously had been generally unknown. Although post-riot analyses generally concluded that poor living conditions and the social marginalization of African-Americans in Los Angles represented the root causes of the Watts riot (e.g., California Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots 1965), some researchers concluded that years of police abuse and brutality in Los Angeles – particularly during the tenure of Police Chief William H. Parker, during which the LAPD transformed into highly aggressive paramilitary police force – was largely responsible for the riot (Skolnick and Fyfe). Community Mental Health Journal, 50(3), 281-287. From the description of events in incident #2, the officer clearly chose the latter by using physical coercion to neutralize the young man’s defiance. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. Currently, these prevention strategies are rooted in the areas of recruitment and training, as well as the proper supervision of officers in the field. Understandably, however, the police claim that excessive force is em-ployed less often than observers or citizens report.8 The targets of police abuse are almost always lower class males, and the most com- Livingston, J. D., Desmarais, S. L., Verdun-Jones, S., Parent, R., Michalak, E., & Brink, J. Participants came into contact with the police under various circumstances, including physical conflicts. However, various incidents involving the use of CEWs demonstrate that a certain connection might be found. ), often for their stated positions on certain issues, such as violent crime, fear of crime, urban disorder, etc. We will write a custom Research Paper on Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. For example, the archetypal officer in Muir’s typology was the “professional” – i.e., a collective group of officers who could place themselves psychologically in the life circumstances of the suspects they encountered, and although professionals did not care to use force to resolve most conflicts during their engagements with members of the public, they used force when necessary to stop conflict, protect lives, and restore order. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. As such, excessive force by police is substantively distinct from other forms of misconduct, such as profit-motivated corruption because, while the later is usually wrong on its very face (e.g., police officers are not permitted to extort money from drug dealers or motorists; and they are not permitted to steal jewelry off corpses they encounter during health-and-welfare checks), they are allowed, and in many cases even expected, to use coercive force as part of their role in society. It is now commonly known that “Laconia” was Oakland, CA, a large city that employed 800 police officers at the time of Muir’s research, and which was characterized by high levels of racially concentrated economic resource deprivation and crime. In the first article, the authors scrutinize the cases of interactions between the police and people with mental illness (Livingston et al., 2014). Although no identified studies have found reliable empirical support for Muir’s typology (see, for example, Hochstedler (1981)), none has tested the typology in a setting that replicates that in which Muir conducted his research. Unlike corruption that is motivated by profit – which is generally impermissible by its very nature – excessive use of force often resides at the marginal end of the acceptable use of force continuum. As noted in the opening pages of this research paper, police brutality – or excessive use of force – occurs for myriad reasons across multiple levels of analysis: the psychological, sociological, social contextual, and organizational. He swings and kicks at them, making glancing contact, until one of the officers makes two baton strikes to the man’s body, sending the suspect hard to the ground. A Gallup poll in March 1991 concerning mistreatment by police and the use of excessive force during contacts with the pub- lic, asked respondents if they had ever been abused or mistreated by the police. The events described in incident #2 suggest perhaps a less ambiguous evaluation of the use of excessive force. I need a 16-page research paper on the topic of: Police Officer Use of Deadly Force Research Paper.The writer is not to take a stance, either for or against deadly force. Several classic police scholars have developed occupational templates to help describe the circumstances under which some police officers engage in brutality. The unaccountability was particularly pronounced under Chief Daryl Gates, who enjoyed civil service protection and indemnity from lawsuits (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Web. Police Brutality - This is a topic suggestion on Police Brutality from Paper Masters. The writer is providing … It’s a repeat of the controversy over his 2016 paper on police use of force. 14-512 64 Pages Posted: 12 May 2016 Last revised: 6 Dec 2016 The paper closes with a discussion of how to prevent and control the excessive use of force. Police Use of Force The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical discussion of police use of force specifically in relation to how much force should be allowed. As a result, officers in such locations are often made to believe that the only way for them to maintain order is through the use of highly aggressive enforcement strategies that may translate into excessive force. It is also likely that people who experience physical abuse at the hands of police may suffer emotional trauma. In their study of retaliatory homicide in St. Louis, Kubrin and Weitzer found that certain types of homicides predicted subsequent homicides in the form of retaliation, suggesting that, had the initial homicide been stopped, the net reduction in many cases would have been two, given that the retaliatory homicide also would have been negated. The study described 8 cases of unexpected cardiac arrest occurred due to the electric impulses produced by a TASER (Zipes, 2014). This research was guided by a procedural justice theoretical perspective. I conduct a nationwide study of the effects of BWCs across more than 1,000 agencies. And it is this general right to use coercive force that makes possible both the best and worst practices of policing. This is the Federal civil rights statute that allows persons alleging harm by police (and any representative of the State who may have acted under color of authority) to seek damages from both the individual officer(s) and the government agency that employed them. Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) is one of the most widely used by security forces instruments. For a society to accept law as moral and the government as legitimate, its members must believe in the fairness of the law-making process (Tyler 1990). Of the respondents 5% of the total polled and 9% of minorities said they had been abused or mistreated. Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/police-force-in-interactions-with-mentally-ill/. This study demonstrated the direct connection between the development of this syndrome and the application of TASER devices. On the other hand, some insist on using only safe techniques and tools. This has created fear in many civilians and also a bad perception about the police department. The tone must be set at the top through the implementation of progressive policies that strive for transparency in the disciplinary review process and promote model tactics and strategies. Rates of misconduct decreased as diversity increased, independent of external factors that often influence organizational rates of misconduct. Unnecessary force usually represents the proper use of force at the immediate moment of application, but which could have been avoided had officers not allowed, or caused, the incident to escalate (Fyfe 1986). The officer, losing patience, asks for the driver’s operating license. It may be that Muir’s findings hold primarily for postindustrial port cities with large urban African-American populations that live predominantly in poverty conditions, socially isolated from the larger urban matrix. Whereas Van Maanen (1978) operationalized the “asshole” perspective as one rooted primarily in the social interactionist tradition, there is evidence that the asshole process also may be driven in part by police subcultural pressures. Indeed, under such conditions, what may be sacrificed in terms of organizational efficiency may be gained in effectiveness. The following section discusses several of the legal issues associated with defining the excessive use of force, which adds further difficulty of successfully defining excessive force and brutality. This sample Police and The Excessive Use of Force Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Controversial police use-of-force incidents have spurred protests and calls for reform across the nation. In the process of taking Frye into custody, officers also arrested his mother and brother for unlawfully interfering with the arrest, which led the crowd to switch from throwing bottles to throwing rocks and other large items at police (Barnhill 2010). Though it is the case that occupational templates-perspectives often fail to yield empirical support, at least one recent study has offered some empirical validation of Van Maanen’s (1978) “asshole” thesis. As a result, enforcers often created situations where other officers near them were forced to use violence against suspects because of the degree to which enforcers provoked violence during their contacts with the public. In many American police departments, the average staffing ratios call for one sergeant for every nine patrol officers (Walker and Katz 2010), and while scant research highlights what supervisors actually do, at least one study suggests that low spans-of-control (i.e., high ratio of supervisors to officers) decreased excessive force (Terrill 2001). This research paper examines the use of excessive force by police through the perspectives offered above while also noting the difficulty and complexities involved in defining police brutality. For present purposes, Kane found that in economically stable communities, police misconduct had no effect on violent crime. In the qualitative portion of their study, Kubrin and Weitzer found through unstructured interviews that the initial homicides were allowed to occur in large part because community residents refused to share information related to criminal activity with the police due to their distrust of law enforcement authorities. Your privacy is extremely important to us. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. This theory states that the main aspect that has the greatest impact on the people’s perceptions about the police “is whether an individual believes they were treated justly and fairly during personal encounters with agents of authority” (Livingston et al., 2014, p. 281). This work describes the problem of the police use of force that has been a very debatable topic for a long time. American citizens enjoy – perhaps more than those of other developed nations – almost unfettered access to their court system. Toch argued that FTOs serve a crucial organizational role because, among other functions, they help probationary police officers practice their recently acquired skills in live settings while under highly structured supervision. When considering, however, the events that led to the shooting, professional incompetence left the officers at risk of being shot in the first place. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. Several leading scholars have developed frameworks to explain why the excessive use of force occurs and how it may foster in some police departments. Future of Policing - Research papers on the future of policing delve into the topics of policing in America and discuss the future policing will have after increasing militarization of police forces, and the use of excessive force. For example, officers confronted by a suspect they label as “dangerous” will likely invoke the normative order of safety to minimize the threat of violence. Excited delirium syndrome and conducted electrical weapons. The most immediate methods by which to control and/or prevent the excessive use of force by police are probably rooted in the recruitment of police officers, training and supervision, and the establishment of organizational cultures within police departments that value the protection of life over the enforcement of law as a primary function. S. Criminal Justice Criminal justice research paper topics can be browsed here or order a custom written thesis statement in literature review criminology project from Paper Masters. The study revealed the deterioration of symptoms in individuals with such problems caused by the use of TASER devices. Indeed, the siege mentality – which stems from the top levels of police department administration – views officers as a collective occupying force deployed in dangerous communities inhabited by dangerous people. They studied the visions of the participants with mental illness on procedural justice relating to their contacts with the police. "Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill." December 24, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/police-force-in-interactions-with-mentally-ill/. Although modern organizational police theory generally argues that low spans-of-control are inefficient to the administration of police departments (making the assumption that “flatter” organizations function more efficiently than “tall” organizations) (e.g., Walker and Katz), in communities where the risk of misconduct may be higher than average, it seems that lower spans-of-control would reduce the risk of brutality as supervisors have more contact with line officers in the field. Prior research in the area of police stress has not focused specifically on improving use of force decision making. Moreover, despite scant support for the typology itself, at least one study has found that – like Muir’s findings – officers who exhibit certain personality characteristics (diffuse though they may be) often “slide” between profiles as the social contexts in which they work vary (Hochstedler 1981). This paper explores racial differences in police use of force. Purpose – This paper aims to build on and contribute to earlier studies on use of force by the police, and examines both officer and suspect force levels during altercations. Also check the list of 100 most popular argumentative research paper topics. Adding controls that account for important context and civilian behavior reduces, but cannot fully explain, these disparities. The main goal of this paper is to research the issue of the police use of force involving mentally ill people. Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, Carter D (1985) Police brutality: a model for definition, perspective, and control. 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